Anxiogenic Like activity of Sarcocephalus latifolius Fruit Extract in Mice

David Arome, Enegide Chinedu, Solomon Fidelis Ameh

Abstract


The use of pharmacological agents in the treatment of anxiety disorders have fallen out of favour as their unwanted side effects have become evident. The present challenges call for an inward look into harnessing the full potential of medicinal plants that abound around us. The present study evaluates the anxiogenic activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius in mice. The prepared extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg as well as 2.5 mg/kg of diazepam, the reference standard was administered orally. The anxiogenic activity of the extract was evaluated using elevated plus maze and open field models. In the elevated plus maze, the extract showed an anxiogenic effect in all the experimental dosage levels by decreasing the time spent and number within the open arms. Animals in the extract and physiological saline groups spent more time in the enclosed arms to avoid the open arms, probably to avoid falling off. The reference standard showed a significant (P<0.001) anxiolytic effect, evidenced by the increased number of entries into the open arms and prolonged time spent in the open arms and centre axis. In the open field model, decreased horizontal locomotor activity was observed in the extract groups. The degree of horizontal locomotion was less in the extract groups compared to the reference standard which had the highest horizontal locomotor activity. Also, there were reductions in the number of rearings at extract doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg. In conclusion, data from the present study suggested that the ethanolic fruit extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius is not only devoid of anxiolytic activity, but it appears to exert anxiogenic like effects.


Keywords


Sarcocephalus latifoluis, Diazepam, Anxiolytic activity, Elevated Plus maze, and Open field Models

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