**Editorial
**

David Alcantara^{1}, Javier Reguera^{2}

*1)
Center for Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, MGH-Harvard Medical
School, 13th St. Blg 149, 02129 Charlestown, USA. 2) 149, 02129 Charlestown,
USA. 2) École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Route Cantonal, 1015
Lausanne, Switzerland.*

*Dear readers of The
All Results Journals: Phys,*

We are pleased to introduce to you The All Results Journals: Phys (correctly
abbreviated as “*All Res. J. Phys*”), a unique journal that publishes
articles and reviews with negative results in the field of Physics. This
journal represents the first total open access source for research concerning
negative results and will be a valuable resource for researchers all over the
world; experts and those new to the field alike.

*The All Results Journals: Phys* immediate goal is to provide scientists with
responsible and balanced information in order to advance faster, improve
experimental designs and global decisions. Many journals skew towards only
publishing “positive” data; that is, data that successfully proves a
hypothesis. *The All Results Journals: Phys* is the home for negative or
“secondary” data: experimental documentation of hypotheses that turn out not to
be true, or other experiments that do not lead to an advance of a specific
hypothesis but are, nevertheless, a true rendering of that experiment. For
example, if a researcher set up a fusion experiment and the experiment did not
work in a particular set of conditions, it would be very useful for other
researchers to know this (to avoid time and money wasting and better planning).

**Impact of publishing negative results in Physics**

The negative results in physics not always get lost. Sometimes
they remain as part of a group know-how and eventually get published somewhere
together with other more positive data in the supporting information of a
peer-review journal, other times they appear published in a doctoral thesis and
other times in a pre-print or directly in a web page. However, there are a lot
of cases where the results get completely lost such as certain works made by
one or two-years post-docs in which the time to get positive results was not
enough or made by PhD students who finished their thesis time without too
bright results. In the last case, at least, the results are expressed in the
form of a thesis book that, on the other hand, doesn’t obtain too much
spreading and finally gets forgotten in the dusty shell of a forgotten
university library. A common way in which the results can get diffusion,
specially used in physics and mathematics, is if they are published in
pre-print or e-print journals such as arXiv. The problem associated with this
is that pre-print journals are normally not peer-review and the articles
published there are considered less or not considered at all when the authors
are, for example, applying for a new job or for a certain grant or fellowship.
It is here where this new journal, *All Res. J. Phys*, will help the
researchers that haven’t obtained the expected results to publish their
negative or secondary results and get some recognition for exploring those
routes and share their knowledge with the rest of scientific society. This
journal is also born to get the maximum spreading of the results: it is a
totally online peer-review journal and totally open-access so institutions with
fewer resources may as well have access and publish without repercussion on
their budget.

The scope of this journal is quite broad, and it is
suitable for all the fields in physics either experimental or theoretical
physics. In biophysics for example, one might publish a simulation
approach for protein folding that doesn’t reach high levels of accuracy, or how
certain charge transfer measurements in synthetic membranes doesn’t fit to the
charge transfer data in cell membranes; in condensed physics, electronic or
magnetic properties and also, structure-property relationships data are not
published because the materials studied don’t show superconductivity, the
electron mobilities aren’t high enough or some nanoparticles don’t show
superparamagnetism. Those negative results could help others to use materials
with different composition or crystallographic structure or may propose a
different physical mechanism. In nuclear physics is well known, for example,
all the expectation created by the cold fusion, and the long time that took to
publish the negative results that didn’t show the expected efficiency. In
astrophysics, it could be a new method that doesn’t detect new planets because
some mathematical problems; in theoretical physics some theory that shows a
non-logic result. High energy physics, quantum physics, relativity, string
theory, optics, soft matter and many more branches of physics are suitable to
publish here the thousands of negative results obtained, that will help the
rest of physicists and speed up the advancement of Science.

**On this issue**

This issue’s article
provides a fantastic example of negative results that can be helpful for other
physicists working in a similar area. The author addresses one of the
mathematical problems found in the manipulation of the data of the Cosmic
Microwave Background (CMB). The anisotropy of the CMB gives us information of
the early stage in the development of the universe dealing with one of the hot
topics in physics “How was the origin of the universe?” The analysis of
the anisotropy of the CMB is a computationally difficult problem, and it
requires the use of the spherical harmonic transforms together with the
subtraction of noise and foreground sources. At this point, to be able to deal
with the big CMB maps, it is necessary to perform a fast spherical harmonic
transform.

In this paper, the
author proposes an algorithm to perform a spin spherical harmonic transform.
They look for an algorithm that is exact (no approximations), fast (low
complexity) and stable (reliable results). In the paper, the authors made a
good description of the problem and provide the mathematical tools necessary to
understand their explications, and that make the reading much easier especially
for readers who are not too familiar with this problem; unfortunately, the
transformation was not stable for high band-limits, but it still can result
useful in the scientific community as all the negative results do.

The proposed
algorithm consists on several steps. First a recasting of the spin transform on
the two-sphere S^{2} as a Fourier transform on the two-torus T^{2}.
After that, the fast Fourier transform is used to compute the Fourier
coefficients that are related to spherical harmonic coefficients through a
linear transform. The resulting algorithm has a complexity of O(L^{3}),
where L is the harmonic band-limit, obtained a slightly worst scenario than the
O(L^{2}log_{2}^{2}L) previously proposed in the
literature but without the necessity of approximations and without band limit
restrictions. To check the stability the authors ran a random test function on
the sphere. With this function, they made an inverse
spherical harmonic transform and a forward spherical harmonic transform and
compared the original harmonic coefficients with the obtained after the two
transformations. They found that for bandwidths bigger than L=32 the error was
too big to be a reliable transformation, that is, the system was unstable above
this limit.

These negative
results can clearly help other researchers working in this field to choose a
different path to solve this mathematical and computational problem. In
addition they can find a solution for the source of instability problems of
this algorithm that, according to the authors, would be the poorly conditioned
linear system relating Fourier and spherical harmonic coefficients.

**Our vision**

*
*As a born-digital
publication,

We strongly believe
that the total Open Access format of the new journal has clear benefits for
science and the general public: First, all articles are freely and universally
accessible online, and so an author's work can be read by anyone at no cost.
The journal is also being indexed by major scientific search engines (Scirus,
Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, etc.) that increases the visibility of the
articles. The easy and widespread availability of articles significantly
enhances reading and citation of the results. Second, all accepted articles are
immediately published with no delay and therefore, allow particularly rapid
dissemination of new results. Third, *The All Results Journals: Phys*
allows interactive discussion and annotation of articles providing an
online tool for open discussion of data. Fourth, there is no size restriction
for articles and no publication charges to authors. Authors hold copyright for
their work and grant anyone the right to reproduce and disseminate the article,
provided that it is correctly cited. These are the principles of open access
publishing, to which *The All Results Journals: Phys* and its publisher,
SACSIS, are committed.

Until now, supporters of the open access movement have not had a top rank
physics journal to publish negative results in. *The All Results Journals:* *Phys* aims to be such a
journal. It will be published primarily online, where each research paper will
always be freely available to all, from the day it is published. Scientists
spend much of their time doing work that never gets published. The time and
money spent to produce such data (that we like to call them “secondary data”)
are essentially wasted. Should we not make an effort to increase our society’s
return on its investment?* The All Results Journals: Phys* is
doing it. Our goal is to establish a free online medium for the publication of
the negative results that otherwise may be lost. Now, we request the
collaboration of researchers to
succeed.

**References **

1. Knight, J., *Nature*, **422**, 554-555 (2003)

2. Alcantara, D., Prado-Gotor, R. * **All Res. J. Chem* **1**, 1-3
(2010).